In-situ hybridization (ISH)
In-situ hybridization is used to determine the location of specific nucleotide sequences in cells and tissue sections. The technique involves the binding of a complementary nucleotide probe to the target sequence to form a hybrid. Enzyme or fluorescent-labeled antibodies are employed to visualize binding and slides are then evaluated by a pathologist using a microscope. Multiplex methods allow for simultaneous evaluation of proteins (immunohistochemistry) and nucleic acids (in-situ hybridization) in a single section.